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Acknowledgements i Abbreviations ii General Introduction 1 1. Rationale 1 2. Aims of the study 2 3. Scopes of the study 3 4. Methods of the study 3 5. Design of the study 3 Chapter One: Theoretical Background 5 1.1 Introduction 5 1.2 Concept of voice 5 1.3 Active voice and passive voice syntactically, semantically and pragmatically viewed 5 1.4 Voice and related concepts 6 1.5 English verbs 6 1.5.1 Classification of English verbs 6 1.5.2 Tense, aspect and mood of English verbs 9 1.5.3 Phrases and clauses 10 Chapter Two: Passive Voice in English 12 2.1 Passive Voice in English Traditional Grammar 12 2.2.1. English passive constructions in traditional grammar 12 2.2.2 The phrase of By and With 17 2.2.3 Usage of English passive voice 18 2.3 Passive Voice in Functional grammar 19 2.3.1 Passive Types 19 2.3.2. The phrase of by and with 21 2.4. Passive voice in Transformational-Generative grammar 22 2.4.1 Introduction 22 2.4.2 Noun phrase passivization 22 Chapter Three: Passive Constructions in Vietnamese 24 3.1 Verbs in Vietnamese 24 3.1.1 Dependent and Independent verbs 24 3.1.2 Transitive – Intransitive verbs 25 3.2 Vietnamese passive expressions in different views 25 3.2.1 Rejection of Passive voice in Vietnamese 26 3.2.2 Support for Passive Expressions in Vietnamese 26 3.2.3 Vietnamese Passive Usage 37 Chapter Four: Contrastive Analysis 51 4.1. Contrast of English and Vietnamese passive constructions syntactically 51 4.1.1 Syntactic similarities 51 4.1.2 Syntactic differences 52 4.2. Contrast of English and Vietnamese passive constructions semantically 54 4.2.1 Similarities 54 4.2.2 Differences. 55 4.3. Contrast of English and Vietnamese passive structures pragmatically 58 4.3.1 Similarities 58 4.3.2. English passive constructions and the Vietnamese equivalents 59 Part Three: Conclusion 67 Bibliography 70 APPENDICES 73

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